What type of material is steel?

Steel is an alloy resulting from the combination of iron and carbon. It includes additional alloying elements besides carbon. The distinct properties of steel arise from the specific elements it comprises and its internal structure.

By varying the proportions of alloying elements, steel can be tailored to diverse needs. Its internal structure is manipulated through methods like annealing and normalizing to produce steel that meets specific requirements.

As part of its composition, steel inherently contains Manganese, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon. Nonetheless, it is possible to incorporate other elements into the steel as needed.

How to Obtain Steel?

There are two primary methods for obtaining steel: the first is through iron ore, and the second is by recycling scrap. Once the materials from these methods are transformed into liquid steel, they are cast into shapes known as billets or blooms.

Steel is categorized into three types: alloyed, low alloyed, and unalloyed. The distinctions between these categories become apparent at certain stages.

  • Production method of steel,
  • Means of production of steel,
  • S, P and other impurities and dissolved gas amounts at the lower limits.
  • Steels are classified differently during the production stage. These classifications;

    • According to their composition as carbon and alloy steel,
    • According to production methods
    • According to final production method
    • According to product shape
    • According to places of use, production programs and deoxidation status

    Basic Properties of Steels

    Steel is a material that responds well to heat treatment, which allows for the attainment of the desired hardness, as well as specific electrical, mechanical, and physical properties when combined with its chemical composition. This process also renders steel resistant to corrosion and able to withstand high temperatures.

    To shape steel, it must first be heated to the necessary temperature. Yet, it’s worth noting that cold forming is also possible through pressing and forging, depending on the steel’s chemical makeup and internal structure.

    The final shape and surface finish of steel can be achieved through machining on appropriate equipment. Steel can be joined by welding and is often capable of being painted or coated with materials such as plastic, metal, or enamel.